Precision Agriculture is a modern method of farming which is also known as site-specific crop management (SSCM) and satellite agriculture. It is a method which use IT information to check whether the crops and soils are receiving nutrients in right amount and makes production more efficient. It uses the wide range of items like GPS Guidance (GPS devices on tractor), control system, robotics (for checking pest problems), sensors, Drones (farmers can monitor plant wealth), GPS based soil sampling (to check the quality of soil) Telematics, hardware and software.
The First Wave of Agriculture
In 1990’s the precision agriculture was introduced with GPS guidance for tractors. This technology’s adoption is spreading all around the world today it is the probably used example in precision agriculture. This technology was first introduced by John Deere using Location data from satellite. Thus, GPS controller helps to reduce any kind of overlapping in the field and steering errors made by the driver. It results in less wasted fuel, water, seed and fertilizers.
It is based on providing right farming techniques for growing crops and planting
Following elements are involved in precision agronomics:
1- Variable Rate Technology
It allows growers to control in the input amounts in a particular location and also it enables the variable application of inputs. Technology includes computer, controller, differential global positioning system (dgps) and software. The VRT is estimated at 15% in North America. It is expected to the continuous growth of crop in next five years. Three approaches are being used in VRT i.e.
- Sensor based
- Map based
2- Computer Based Applications
Computer based applications are used for creating yield maps, crop scouting, field maps and precise farm plans. The more precise application of inputs like
Helps in reducing expenses on producing higher yields and this will help to create environmentally- friendly operation. Sometimes they don’t allow data to be used for making bigger farm decision. The problem with much software is interference of poor user and they are unable to combine the information with other data sources which shows the significant values to farmers.
3- GPS soil sampling
Once the soil is sampled which shows you the availability of nutrients, PH value and range of other data for making the informed and profitable decision. Sampling of soil allows farmer to look into the productivity differences and make a plan that bears differences into the mind. If efforts are worthy then this will allow the optimizing seeds and fertility.
4- Remote sensing Technology
Since the late 1960’s the remote sensing technology has been in use in agriculture. When it comes to the monitoring then this can be invaluable tool. It can help in determining what are the factors may be stressing a crop while estimating the amount of moisture present in the soil. However this data will enhance the decision making on farm and can come from sources like drones and satellites. Therefore at the most basic level, precision agronomics takes the role of an agronomist and helps to make the methods more accurate and scalable which are used by them. The primary aim of precision agronomics is sustainability, profitability and efficiency during the environment protection. In precision agriculture principles have been around for more than the two decades they have become mainstreams of the adoption of other, broadband technologies and also the advancement of technology .Here are some of the technologies characterizing the precision agriculture trend:
- Reliable satellites for imagery and positioning
- Low cost
- Access to high internet speed
- Adoption of mobile devices
More than 50% farmers use the one of the precise agricultural method.
What Are The Scope And Adoption Of Precision Farming In India?
1- Can use robots and small farmer machinery where the soil will not be dense and may also run on renewable fuels like, compressed biogas, electricity produced on farms by agricultural residues and bio oil.
2- Robots are already being used on small farms and it is expected that the in large scale in the near future they may be deployed. Most robotic machines and drones are suitable for small farms.